Tweets on Urdu
1. Urdu is national language of Pakistan spoken by 8% of people of Pakistan. Almost 50% speak Punjabi yet it is not the national language!
2. What is the history of Urdu? The word Urdu is derived from the Turki word Ordu, which meant “a military camp”.
3. Urdu was a product of the dialect used by the Muslims who ruled over Deccan and South India from the 14th century awards.
4. The literary speech arising out of Urdu, known as Dakhni or the Southern Speech may be traced back to the 15th century.
5. It’s use was limited to the Deccan and South India was used by the Muslims who were less influenced by the local Hindu spirit of Deccan.
6. Urdu of Muslims of Deccan had lesser influence of dialects and languages of North India than the other Muslims living in North India.
7. This difference becomes manifest from the fact that the Perso-Arabian script was used in Deccan, in writing from almost the beginning.
8. Gradually the literature increasingly came under foreign influence that it became more and more Muslim and Persian in its attitude.
9 However, Urdu continued to retain till the end of the 17th century, a good deal of Indian vocabulary.
10. The chief centers of Dakhni literature were Gujarat, Golconda, Bidar, Bijapur and Aurangabad.
11. It was patronized by amongst others Qutb Shahi Sultans of Golcondo, one of whom, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was a gifted poet.
12. One of his courtiers wrote a romantic poem whose theme was the love of this king,for a Telegu Hindu girl named Bhagwati.
13. The king later married her, named the city built in her honor as Bhag-nagar & subsequently renamed with her Islamic name Haider-Begum.
14. Thus Bhagyanagar became Hyderabad.
15. Dakhni literature flourished up to end of the 17th century, but declined after the conquest of the Deccan and South India by Aurangzeb.
16.By the first half of the 18th century, the mantle of Dakhni fell to the newly rising Urdu speech of Delhi.
17.Urdu speech of Delhi & colonial form of a North-Indian speech merged & Urdu became well established with its present name by 1750.
18. The Persian literature produced during the heyday of the Mughal rule exercised a tremendous influence on regional literatures.
19. This influence resulted in the evolution of literary Urdu. Punjabi, Pushtu, Sindhi, Baluchi and Kashmiri, all used the Persian script.
20. In the post-Aurangzeb period, the status of the Persian language faced a challenge as a result of the collapse of the central authority.
21. However, it was not until 1837 that Persian ceased to be official language of India.
22.Urdu later became the dominant language of education and administration, came only with the establishment of British rule over Punjab.
23. As a language Urdu took birth during the 160 year period between 1670 & 1830. Both Arabic and Persian contributed significantly to Urdu.
24. As the imperial authority began weakening the intelligentsia felt the need to revitalize the Muslim morale by means of reforms.
25. Arabic became the natural medium for fulfilling the religious rethinking among the Muslims in the early part of the 18th century.
26. This could also explain the influence of Arabic on Urdu.
27. When the British came to India they realized the need to communicate in Urdu.
28. Which is why British set up a Urdu center at the Fort William College Calcutta to teach British employees the language.
29. The origin of the literary Urdu was in the military camps from the Hindi Khari Boli during the later Mughal period.
30. During 1818-1905 Urdu emerged as a literary language as a result of its of expression for religious, philosophic thoughts.
31. Though Urdu translation of the Koran was made as late as 1791 it became popular and replaced Persian as the language of the educated masses.
32.It was only in 1837 that Persian was replaced with Urdu as the official language of India.
33. Urdu poetry upto the fourth quarter of the 19th century was just a reflexion of Persian poetry.
35. The Urdu poets thought and wrote in terms of Persian poetry, the references were things, events and ideas of Persia and Arabia.
36. They used names of Persian flowers, all the little streams of Persia, and its towns and provinces, its hills and mountains but they never mentioned anything Indian much less an Indian hero.
37. These poets were absolutely and deliberately blind to all the great things of their own country, the soil of which, according to a great Urdu poet, was napak or impure.
38. As Muslim dominance over India had begun to wane so was its language Urdu.
39. In order to rejuvenate Urdu & the Islamic influence they took local dialect Hindi and married it with a strong Persian Islamic influence.
40. Lucknow and Rampur became the centers of Urdu literature in the 19th century.
41. The Aligarh Movement by Sir Syed Ahmad gave rise to modern Urdu literature at the beginning of the fourth quarter of the 19th century.
43. This led to the the concept of Pan-Islamicism. Who is responsible and what is the result?
44. Sir Syed Ahmad gave birth to the Pan-Islamic movement in India and Mohandas Gandhi gave birth to Kilafat Movement.
45. It was Gandhi who strengthened the dying Islam.
46. Gandhi was the father of Kilafat movement of Pan-Islamism and in the later years Gandhi was the father of Pakistan not Jinnah.
47. Gandhi was the modern Mareechi who hid true self as the villain of the piece. By that analogy Godse was Rama who slew Mareeci.
48. As time passed by Urdu came to be seen as the language of the Muslims.
49. Evidence given by Muslim leaders before the Hunter Commission (between 1883 to 1890) in Bengal demanding entire separate arrangements for the primary education of the Hindu and the Muslim and insisting upon Urdu as a medium of instruction even in a province like Bengal where 99 % of the Muslims were ignorant of that language.
50. Reinforcing with a Pan Islamic identity was their way to stem the decline of Muslim power in India.
51. Even in 1947 and thereafter Bengali and not Urdu was the most widely spoken language in whole of Bengal, East and West.
52.Muhammad Iqbal (1873 to 1938) the essayist was comfortable in Persian and Urdu.
53. Iqbal’s doctrine went counter to the quietism and acceptance preached by traditional Sufism.
54. His was the militant doctrine of action, the primitive Islam which was preached by the Prophet Mohammed.
55. This doctrine of action made Iqbal the great leader of Indian Muslims.
56.His longer poems Shikwa (complaint) & Jawab-I-Shikwah (Reply to the Complaint) are considered the Mein Kampf of Muslim revivalists in India.
57. These poems give in the form of a complaint before Allah about the adverse circumstances in which the Indian Muslims had fallen, and the sequel given the remedies prescribed by God for Muslim uplift. So his poems in Urdu cemented the thought in the sub-continent Muslim mind that Urdu and Islam in India were synonymous.
58. Gandhi and his Indian (anti)National Congress actually spearheaded the movement to split India.
59. If it was not for Gandhi and his Congress this artificial language Urdu and its message of asuratvam would never have succeeded in India.
60. We will take up the resistance to this language of evil and its history tomorrow.
61. Urdu is Hindi Khari boli (Delhi Hindi) with Persian and Arabic thrown in.
62. Although the language came into existence after 1730 it is only after 1818 did it become a language of expressing thoughts.
63. Sir Syed Ahmed and Muhammad Iqbal did a lot to promote the language and make it the lingua franca of the Indian Muslims.
64. With the establishment of British rule over Punjab, Urdu became a dominant language of education and administration there.
65. Starting the 20th century Urdu became a bone of contention between Hindus and Muslims.
66. Let’s start knowing the state of Hindi, Punjabi in Punjab around 1700-1720.
67. Guru Govind Singh (1666-1708) had in his employ 52 poets who composed in the then prevalent mode of neo-classical Hindi poetry.
68. All the writings of these poets were also written down in the Gurumukhi script and recited at sessions convened by the Guru.
69. Most of these poems have been lost. During the 18th century Priest of Hari Mandir got together whatever remained of these poems.
70. They compiled them into the Granth of the 10th master or the Dasham Granth. This work contains 3 versions of the epic of goddess Chandi.
71. Two of these are in Hindi while the third is in Punjabi. The third is believed to be the Guru’s own composition.
72. The Guru got a great deal of literature written based on the tales of heroism to arouse the people to crusade for higher values.
73. The Guru named the higher value Dharma & prepared the people to fight for it.
74. He also composed some important works in Apabhramsa style of Hindi, including the autobiographical poem, the Bichitra Natak.
75. So both Punjabi and Hindi were prevalent then.
76. Urdu became the dominant language of education and administration only with the establishment of British rule over Punjab.
77. Since the British captured Punjab only in 1849 (Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839) Urdu became dominant only after that.
78. Till 1857 the Muslims hated the new rulers – Christians – for snatching away the throne from them.
79. It was only after 1857 that Sir Syed Ahmad made the Muslims realize that it was in their interest to support the Christians i.e. Brits.
80. The British too realized the importance of having the Muslims on their side and using them as a counter to Hindus.
81. Hence they decided to support the Muslims by making Urdu the official language of Punjab.
82. Undivided Punjab had more Muslims than Hindus but Hindus were in large numbers.
83. The Brits were bent on enhancing the Hindu Muslim divide so they did not make both Urdu & Hindi languages of education/administration.
84. Also note that undivided Punjab then consisted of modern day Punjab on both sides of the border + Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
85. It is Swami Dayananda Saraswati’s Arya Samaj that led the movement for revival of Hindi. He used to communicate in Sanskrit.
86. A leader of the Brahmo Samaj Shri Keshub Chandra Sen advised Swamiji the importance of carrying on his propaganda in a popular language.
87. So Dayanand decided on Hindi & subsequent Samaj leaders carried on the movement for usage of Hindi.
88. Since the Arya Samaji movement had strong roots in Punjab, Hindi became Arya Bhasha there.
89. In Punjab and the United Provinces the Samaj have done excellent work ahead of the missionary effort.
90. No single organization could claim to have as many schools for boys and girls as the Samaj.
91. For the boy’s there were two types of colleges, one affiliated with the Government University & other independent of official control.
92. The Dayanand Anglo-Vedic College was started at Lahore in 1886.
93. A number of educational institutions were opened in Punjab and modern day Uttar Pradesh.
94. By 1914, the Samaj had the largest number of institutions in Northern India and probably the second largest in the country.
95. For the girls the Samaj maintained a large number of schools and colleges such as Kanyamahavidyala at Jullundar.
96. The impact of the Arya Samaj is also to be seen in the adoption of Hindi as a language of administration in Rajputana and U.P.
97. Under the persuasion of Sir Pratap Singh, several states of Rajputana were convinced to adopt Hindi script for official work.
98. It came to be adopted as an alternative medium of administration in U.P. early in the 20th century.
99. Therefore, the emergence of the Arya Samaji movement in North India led to the resurgence of Hindi.
100. Also the Arya Samaj movement made Hindus pride of their past, led to a revival of their confidence levels.
101. It made them shun foreign influence understood as Urdu, the language of the Muslims.
102. Sikhs restricted themselves to Gurmukhi so they didnt grow beyond Punjab but because of Hindi Arya Samaj grew beyond Punjab!
103. Until 1947 boys in Punjab learnt Urdu because it was needed for work but girls learnt only Hindi!
104. A a movement was started by the Hindus of Kashi in 1867 to replace Urdu by Hindi and the Arabic script by Nagari.
105. Remember similar movement for the use of Hindi was started in Punjab by Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
104. These movements convinced Syed Ahmed Khan that Hindus |7 Muslims could never join together & the differences would only widen.
105. Nawab Mulk said “Although we do not have the power of the pen, our hands are still strong enough to wield the might of the sword”.
106. On 30/12/1906 the All India Muslim League at Dacca was formed. Urdu became one more reason for the increasing Hindu Muslim divide.
107. Urdu got caught in the Hindu Muslim crossfire that got accentuated after Khilfat movement.
108. When the Hindus insisted on use of Hindi, the League denounced it as a sign of Hindu domination.
109. The League insisted its cooperation with Congress depended on Urdu being made the national language in place of Hindi.
110. Urdu was nothing but a Persianized dialect of Hindi. Its script is Persian and the grammar is of Hindi.
111. Gandhi was Muslim appeaser par excellence so he came up with a fantastic idea of a brand new language called Hinustani!
112. This new hybid language Hindustani was half-Hindi, half-Urdu.
113. With a mirage slogan of Hindu Muslim unity at any cost, the Congress capitulated before the Muslims on every occassion.
114. Congress capitulated on Vande Matharam, the national flag and finally on Hindi.
115. After the so called independence movie producers, TVs and other mass media have found encouragement from the Congress to spread Urdu.
116. There are more Urdu words used in movies and TV serials. This is the subtlest attack on our language.
117. These anti-national movie houses must be burnt down and those anti-Hindu journos shot dead. This would definitely happen.
118. We have to start a movement/dhaarna to block use of Urdu in movies & TVs and threaten them of dire consequence if they disobey.
119. Take the Danda folks! You will never win otherwise!