For part 5 click on –> MY TWEETS ON PRE-PARTITION HISTORY – PART 5
REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT OF THE PEOPLE OF INDIA THAT THE CONGRESS NEVER SUPPORTED BUT WORKED AGAINST.
1. The last year of the second decade of twentieth century found India highly discontented.
2. The British colonialists let loose a reign of terror with The Rowlatt Act, the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and martial law in Punjab.
3. On 1 August 1920 Lokamanya Tilak passed away. The day of mourning became the launching of the movement of non-coperation with the British.
4. People all over the country observed hartal and took out processions. Many kept a fast and offered prayers.
5. Prince of Wales came to visit India on 17 November, 1921 and landed in Bombay. A countrywide hartal was called.
6. Nationalist Umar Shobhani lighted a huge bonfire of foreign cloth and a frenzied enthusiasm followed
7. Parsis, Christians, Anglo-Indians loyal to the colonialists were returning from welcoming the Prince of Wales.
8.A clash occured between the colonial loyalists & the patriotic strikers; police fired and 3 days of turmoil ensued with 59 people dead.
9. Gandhi as usual acted as a damper chiding the patriots with his hunger strike for 3 days.
10. Khilafatist Ali brothers were also egging people to indulge in violence. British govt retaliated with arrests.
11.Chitta Ranjan Das was among the first to be arrested, followed by his wife Basantidebi. Incensed by this the youth indulged in violence.
12. In the next two months, over 30,000 people were arrested from all over the country. Gandhi alone remained out of jail.
13. In Chauri Chaura in U.P., on 5 February 1922, there was a clash between the police and the people. Police opened fire.
14. At this, the entire procession attacked the police and when the police hid inside the station, people set fire to the building.
15. Policemen who tried to escape were hacked to pieces and thrown into fire. In all twenty-two policemen were done to death.
16. Traitor Gandhi called off the agitation on 12th February 1922. The nation was shocked at his behaviour.
17. The underground Revolutionary Movement was also going on parellel to the INC’s non-cooperation movement.
18. The revolutionaries in northern India organized under the leadership of four old veterans.
19. They were Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterjee, Chandrashekhar Azad and Sachindranath Sanyal.
20. Their ‘Bandi Jiwani’ served as a textbook to the revolutionary movement.
21. They met in Kanpur in October 1924 and founded the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) to organize armed revolution.
22. Their aim was to overthrow colonial rule and establish in its place a Federal Republic of the United States of India.
23. Gopinath Saha in January 1924 tried to assassinate Charles Tegart, the hated Police Commissioner of Calcutta.
24. Gopinath Saha was arrested and executed despite large-scale protests.
25. The most important action of the HRA was the Kakori train episode.
26. On 9 August. 1925, ten men up the 8-Down train at Kakori, a village near Lucknow, looted the official railway treasury.
27. The Government reaction was quick and hard. It arrested a large number of young men.
28. Ashfaqullah Khan, Ramprasad Bismil, Roshan Singh, Rajendra Lahiri were hanged.
29. Four others were sent to the Andaman for life and seventeen others were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment.
30. Chandrashekhar Azad remained at large. The Kakori case was a major setback to the revolutionaries of northern India.
31.However they regrouped under Bejoy Kumar Sinha, Shiv Varma and Jaidev Kapur in U.P., Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra and Sukhdev.
32. In Punjab they set out to reorganize the HRA under the overall leadership of Chandrashekhar Azad.
33. All the major young revolutionaries of northern India met at Ferozeshah Kotla Ground at Delhi on 9 and 10 September 1928.
34. They created a new collective leadership and adopted socialism as their official goal.
35. Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) became Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HRSA).
36. Lala Lajpat Rai was killed by a brutal lathi-charge during the anti-Simon Commission demonstration at Lahore on 30 October 1928.
37. The brutal assasination of Lala Lajpat Rai, known as Sher-e-Punjab, infuriated the HRSA leaders.
38. On 17 December 1928, Bhagat Singh, Azad & Rajguru assassinated, at Lahore, the Police Officer Saunders who had led the attack on Lala.
39. Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929.
40. They were protesting against the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes Bill that would reduce the civil liberties of citizens.
41. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru and many other revolutionaries were tried in a series of conspiracy cases.
42. “We have bombed the British Government. The British must quit India”, they declared.
43.Their slogans ‘Inquilab Zindabad,’ songs ‘Sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamare dil mein hain’ & ‘Mera rang de basanti chola’ became mantra.
44. Bhagat Singh, Rajguru & Sukhdev became symbols for Indian struggle against British rule.
45. They became an inspiration for many youths who wanted to see India independent.
46. Sukhdev and Rajguru were executed on 23rd March 1931 and Bhagat Singh on 24th March 1931.
47. Millions of people in India wept and refused to eat food when they heard of their hanging. Such sympathy was never heard of in India.
48. But Traitor Gandhi adamantly denounced them. Nathuram Godse was only 19 then. His political making had not taken place.
49. I wish Nathuram Vinayak Godse had killed Gandhi by then. Millions of countrymen would have been saved by Gandhi’s death in 1931.
50. Chandrashekhar Azad had escaped from getting arrested and he continued to organize the revolutionary youths.
51. But on 27th February 1931 Azad was betrayed by an informer. A huge posse of British troops encircled him in the Alfred Park, Allahabad.
52. For several hours he alone fought against hundreds of policemen. He kept on fighting till the last bullet.
53. Finding no other alternative, except surrender, Azad shot himself. Long Live Chandrashekar Azad!
54. A large number of revolutionaries were convicted in the Lahore conspiracy Case and other similar cases.
55. Many of them were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment majority of them were sent to the Andamans.
56. The revolutionary under-trials went on hunger strike protesting against the horrible conditions in jails.
57. They demanded that they be treated as political prisoners and not as criminals.
58. On 13th September, after 64 days of an epic hunger strike Jatin Das, the iron willed young man from Bengal died.
59. The entire nation rallied behind the hunger strikers.
60. Thousands came to pay homage at every station passed by the train carrying his body from Lahore to Calcutta.
61. At Calcutta, a two-mile-long procession of more than half a million people carried his coffin to the cremation ground.
62. Sensing the revolutionary upsurge bursting out, Gandhi decided to divert it with his salt sathyagraha.
63. Udham Singh had witnessed his brother being killed in the Jalianwala massacre as a child.
64. Twenty-one years later he took the revenge for that massacre by killing Sir Michael O’Dwyer on 13th March 1940.
65. Sir Michael O’Dwyer was the governor of Punjab at the time of Jalianwala Bagh massacre and had strongly supported the massacre.
66. Udham Singh was captured and executed On July 31, 1940.
67. Mohan Singh, an Indian officer of the British Indian Army who did not join the retreating British army in Malaya.
68. He was the first to conceive the idea of the Indian National Army and asked for Japanese help.
69. Indian prisoners of war were handed over by the Japanese to Mohan Singh who then formed them into an Indian National Army.
70. On 1 September 1942, the first division of the INA was formed with 16,300 men.
71. Accompanied by Rashbehari Bose, Netaji arrived at Singapore from Tokyo on 27 June.
72. He was given a tumultuous welcome by the resident Indians and was profusely garlanded wherever he went.
73. The Provisional Government of Free India was formed on 21 October 1943 with Netaji as its first Prime Minister.
74. The Provisional Government of free India formed under ‘Netaji’ declared war on Britain.
75. In March – April 1944 INA set its foot inside India 7 captured large parts of Manipur.
76. On April 6th 1944 Kohima, a major city was captured.
77. This was our armed insurrection’s first victory over the British but the Gandhi-Nehru clique conspired with the British against Netaji.
Continued in –> MY TWEETS ON PRE-PARTITION HISTORY – PART 7