1.In this chapter we recount events upto the end of WWI & of the Congress as the symbol of erosion of Revolutionary zeal.

2. In 1857 the first Revolutionary War of Independence took off but was suppressed by the British.

3. Since then the movement for revolution took a set back and remained dormant for a very long time. In the meantime..

4. Indian National Congress (INC) was stated in 1885 by a Scotsman A.O.Humes as a pro-govt party of the British colonialists.

5. INC was just a debating society of leaders such as Dadabhai Naoroji, Sundernath Bannerjee, Madan Mohan Malviya and Motilal Nehru.

6. They met annually to express loyalty to the British Raj & passed numerous resolutions on less controversial issues such as civil rights.

7. 1905 was a turning point when the British Viceroy Curzon announced the partition of Bengal on communal lines. It had 2 important impacts.

8. (a) The Hindu landowners in East Bengal who leased lands out to Muslim peasants righty feared they will be disposessed.

9. (b) The large Bengali Hindu middle-class (the Bhadralok) got upset at the prospect of Bengalis being outnumbered in West Bengal by Biharis and Oriyas.

10.The pervasive protests against Curzon’s decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi (“buy Indian”) campaign.

11.The campaign was led by two-time Congress president, Surendranath Banerjee, and involved boycott of British goods.

12. The British suppressed it, however it gave birth to nationalism & brought to prominence “Vande Maatharam” of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.

13. The religious stirrings of the slogan and the political outrage over the partition ignited the spirit of the budding youth.

14. Young men, in groups such as Jugantar, took to bombings public buildings, staging armed robberies and assassinating British officials.

15. The reaction to this from the Muslims led them, in 1906, to ask for separate electorate & proportional representation.

16. This crytallized the religious division and to the founding of All India Muslim League in Dacca in 1906.

17. To counter this Arya Samaj organized “reconversion” events for the purpose of welcoming Muslims back to the Hindu fold (Ghar Vaapasi).

18.The Congress itself had rallied around symbolism of Kali in Bengal and the Muslim fears increased.

19. Dadabhai Naoroji, Sundernath Bannerjee, Madan Mohan Malviya and Motilal Nehru were pro-colonial reforminsts but were styled as moderates.

20. The Moderates were naively discussing reforms with colonialists while a vigorous popular movement was going on in the country.

21.In 1905, Tilak and Lajpat Rai, & Bipin Chandra Pal were rising leaders in the Congress challenging its submissive character.

22. The confrontation policies of Tilak, Lajpat Rai & Bipin (Bal, Lal & Pal) known as extremists were opposed by the pro-colonial Congress.

23. I call this trio – Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpati Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal as patriots and the moderates as renegades.

24. By the end of 1907 the Surat session of the Congress ended in fiasco.

25. The two factions of patriots & renegades came to blows & were looking over each other as their main political enemy.

26. The renegades called in the police and drove out the patriots. British govt unleashed terror on the leaders.

27. Tilak was arrested and sent to Mandalay, Burma for 6 years. Aurobindo though was acquitted sought refuge in French Pondicherry.

28. B.P.Lal retired and Lajpat Rai moved to Britain. The patriots within the Congress were vanquished.


29. Away from the Congress, In 1904, V.D. (Veer) Savarkar organized Abhinav Bharti as a secret society of revolutionaries.

30. After 1905 several newspapers openly (and a few leaders secretly) began to advocate revolutionary terrorism.

31. In 1907, an unsuccessful attempt was made on the life of the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal.

32. In April 1908, Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose threw a bomb at a carriage that carried Kingsford, the unpopular judge at Muzzafarpur.

33. Unfortunately it killed two English ladies instead. Chaki shot himself while Bose was caught and hanged.

34. Thousands wept at this 17 year old revolutionary’s death. He became subject of many folk songs.

35. This was the beginning of revolutionary terrorism.

36. Soon secret societies of revolutionaries came up all over the country, most famous & long lasting being Anushilan Samiti & Jugantar.

37. Their activities took two forms – the assassination of oppressive officials and informers and traitors from their own ranks.

38. They indulged in dacoities to raise funds for purchase of arms, etc. These robberies came to be popularly known as Swadeshi dacoities.

39. Two of the most spectacular actions of the period were attempts on life of Viceroy, Lord Hardinge who was wounded by the bomb thrown.

40. The other was the assassination of Curzon-Wylie in London by Madan Lal Dhingra.

41. In all 186 revolutionaries were killed or convicted between the years 1908-1918.

42. Famous among them were Shyamji Krishnavarma, V.D.Savarkar and Har Dayal in London and Madam Cama and Ajit Singh in Europe.

43. The Patriots within Congress fanned their discontent with the British while the activities of revolutionaries outside spread the unreast.

44. in 1909, the British Government announced Morley-Minto Reforms providing for special representation of the Muslims.

45. This was clearly aimed at threatening the Hindu-Muslim unity upon which the National Movement of those fighting the British had rested.


46. World War 1 had started by then. In August 1914, as the German Army advanced through France and Belgium

47. The British Indian Army of 161,000 strong, was an obvious source of trained men. More were recruited and as war progressed.

48. The INC headed by renegades never objected when the Lahore and Meerut infantry divisions were selected for service in Europe.

49. The Indian soldiers were used as fodder in the war fought between Europeans.

50. One million Indian troops served overseas; 62,000 died and another 67,000 were wounded.

51. In total 74,187 Indian soldiers died during the war.

52. The war was not worth anything for the Indian people there was no benefit for them.

53. On the contrary there were Economic Effects: (a) Indian taxpayers contributed £146 million to Britain to pay for the war.

54. (b) Taxes in India went up by 16% in 1916, 14% in 1917, and 10% in 1918.

55. (c) There was a shortage of furl and food because a lot of it was sent to Britain during the war.

56. (d) Prices of British-made and manufactured goods went up by 190%

57. After the war Indian businessmen faced ruin as competition from British goods resumed.

58. Even though the Congress was subservient to the British Bengal and Punjab remained hotbeds of anti colonial activities.

59. An expatriate Indian population from the US, Canada, & Germany attempted to trigger insurrections in India.

60. During WW I, the British Indian Army was fightimg in Europe. Consequently, a reduced force of about 15,000 troops remained in India.

61. The Gadar movement tried to take advantage of this reduced force to stage an insurrection.

62. This movement was headed by the Berlin Committee and the Ghadar Party of the expatriates who conspired the “Hindu–German Mutiny”.

63. The British infiltrated their movment and suppressed them with draconian laws such as Defence of India Act 1915.

64. However events during the WW I time revealed that there was lot of energy among the Indians to conspire and overthrow the British.

65. The 1917 Russian Revolution has also brought a spurt of revolutionary zeal. Many poets like Bharati had sung in praise of it.

66. Through out the time of war the Congress that included Tilak and Annie Besant were clamoring for “Home Rule”, not independence.

67. In 1919, the British brough in the Government of India Act that gave the right to vote to about 5 million of the wealthiest Indians.

68. These electors could choose a provincial govt to take care of health, education & public works. British kept Central govt, tax & police.

69. This ‘concessionary’ act was supplanted with Rowlatt Act that was draconian in every respect to punish opposition to British Rule.

70. On 13th April 1919 a large crowd of people to attend a public meeting in Jallianwala Baghcalled to protest arrest of 2 leaders in Amritsar.

71. General Dyer without warning order the shooting of unarmed civilians. More than a 1000 people including women and children were massacred.

72. This brutality stunned the nation. But Motilal Nehru as the Congress President wrote only a protest letter and rested.

73. Since then London educated lawyers such as Gandhi, Nehru, Patel, etc lined up into the Congress movement of subservience.

74. As a result of the WW I Ottaman Empire Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) which imposed the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.

75. The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to protect the Ottoman Empire.

76. Gandhi supported this movement saying he is currying favor from Muslim for the Swaraj movement.

77. However this Khilafat Movement turned fundamentalist and ugly by killing, raping and looting of the Hindus especially in Kerala.

78. The largely kudiyaan (tenant) Mappilas attacked and killed jenmi (landlords) of the Hindu Nair and Brahmin Nambudiri castes.

79. Over 10000 Hindus were killed and equal number injured or maimed and 50000 taken prisoners in a frenzy reminiscent of holocaust.

80. Gandhi the so called apostle of non-violence supported the Muslims.

81. If anyone still says something nice about Gandhi and defend him then call him a bastard and spit on is face and shoe him!

82. The British govt in effort to assert its authority put down Mopla movment with an iron hand. Gandhi tried to portray the Muslim as patriots!

83. Even as late as in 1971, the Government of Kerala officially recognised the Islamic killers of Moplas as “freedom fighters”.

84. By 1920 the Congress declared the aim as complete Swaraj but adopted methods of passive resistance that would never reach the goal!

85. From 1857 which saw the “Real” war of liberation of blood and sweat we enter post WW-I a world of ‘swaraj’ of timidity and idiotic fancy.

86. Heretofore we would hear lots of this “Satyagraha” of bombastic cowardice that never challenged the British nor would it enthuse it to quit.

87. Gandhi became the leader of the ‘swaraj’ movement through this children’s game of ‘satyagraha’.

88. Civil disobedience, Salt-sathyagraha etc were aimed not at overthrowing British Raj but to placate subservience to Gandhi.

89. But at anytime this satyagraha matures into an adult game
of acive and violent resistance Gandhi would call it off and chide those who grew up!

90. And then the Second World War set in. During the 18 years from 1920 to 1938 Gandhi was the unquestionable leader of Congress.

91. Gandhi was the leader of a movement of stolen-and-misdirected liberation by group of British educated lawyers.

92.These lawyer gang had this unHindu concept of governance based on the British model of capitalism and class struggle.

93. Its superstructure was parliamentary democracy and secularism both concepts completely succeptible to corruption.

94. In the previous chapter on Netaji we dealt with events from the start of the war to the partition.

95. So we will talk of the tremendous pain and suffering Gandhi brought on India that culminated in the death fo millions during partition.

96. That horror of horrors was this deamon’s loving experiment in terror dubiously called ‘Ahimsa’ and ‘Satyagraha’.



About janamejayan

A Viraat Hindu dedicated to spread the message of Paramacharya of Kanchi
This entry was posted in Indian History. Bookmark the permalink.


  1. Pingback: MY TWEETS ON PRE-PARTITION HISTORY – PART 6 | Janamejayan's Weblog

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