Despite India’s (Hind va Sind) ancient religions (Hinduism, Buddhism etc) and culture, and its great intellectual achievements in mathematics (zero, algebra, Hindu numerals, geometry, decimal system etc), science, medicine, art and architecture , music and philosophy which it shared with others by allowing others to study in its universities or taking its knowledge to the courts of others (eg Baghdad in the early phase of Islam) it was regarded as pagan/polytheist and therefore unacceptable to Islam.
Under Islam, paganism, idolatry and polytheism must be destroyed and the booty distributed amongst Muslim fighters for allah. India deserved jihad to turn it to Islam and the jihad continues today.
“The tongue of the sword of the Khalifa of the time, which is the tongue of the flame of Islam, has imparted light to the entire darkness of Hindustan by the illumination of its guidance.”
From sea to sea the “capitals of the gods of the Hindus, in which Satanism has prevailed since the time of the Jinns, have been demolished” (Muslim chroniclers, Bostom, p 641-2). The slaughter of Hindus (Jains, Buddhists etc) was/is an act of genocide.
“From the time Muslims started arriving, around 632 AD, the history of India becomes a long, monotonous series of murders, massacres, spoliations and destructions. It is as usual in the name of a ‘holy war’ of their faith, of their sole god, that the barbarians have destroyed civilisations, wiped out whole races.” The policy of the Muslim invaders “seems to have been a conscious, systematic destruction of everything that was beautiful, holy, refined (to Indians)..”( Danielou quoted in Khan p 200-1)
While little detail was known about ‘India’ (Hind va Sind) initially, it was known to be inhabited by polytheists and idol worshippers and Muslims knew their religious duty from their text and Mohammad’s example was to fight the infidels, destroy their idols and shrines and convert them to Islam. Jihad or fighting to establish the religion is central to Islam—without it there is no Islam (Lal [a] p 436).
Initially attackers were based outside India. Early Arab attacks had limited success and were repulsed. Initially Arabs and Turks attacked ‘Hindu’ (and Buddhist) Afghanistan ( 7th to 9th century). From the 9th to 11th century Turks eg Mahmud of Ghazni (997-1030CE) , attacked the Punjab. For almost 150 years his successors couldn’t extend their domain beyond the Punjab frontier. In the 12th to early 13th century Muhammad Gauri conquered Northwestern India and the Gangetic valley setting up the Delhi sultanate in 1206 (1206-1526). Attacks across India and into the south then came from ‘foreign’ Muslims based in India, including sultanates independent of Delhi. Muslim attacks from outside India continued. The Mughal (Mogal) empire was established from 1526-1707. All however were bent on jihad against the hated polytheists and idolaters who were also seen as ‘black’ and Islam hates black people (see Mohammad’s and Islam’s antiBlack racism. Part D in Islam’s genocidal slavery: this site)
It should be noted that while many fled (the Roma people left India), some converted, but many Indians battled the invaders and resisted conversion to Islam from the beginning to today. Even during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire, large areas of India refused to Islamize.(Bostom p80) But the battle continues.
Sind (parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan): Caliph Omar attacked and pillaged Thana in 636. 8 further attacks of slavery and pillage followed but failed to gain a foothold. The Hindus strongly resisted but were attacked by land and sea. There was no success under the first 4 pious caliphs of Islam though the next, Muawiyah, after several failures occupied Makran in 680. It resisted and in 1290 Marco Polo noted Makran as part of Hind (Lal [a] p 434). (Note Sind extended from Kashmir and Kanauj (East), Makran (west), to the coast and Debal (South) and Kandhar, Seristan, and the mountains of Kuzdan and Kikanan (north) and included Punjab, Baluchistan, parts of the Northwest Frontier Province and parts of Rajasthan.
Hind was attacked post 643 but the Muslim Arabs were repulsed. In 653 they conquered Zabul and obtained tribute briefly from Kabul but the Hindu’s continually repulsed the Arabs into the 7th, 8th, 9th century with Hindus still ruling Kabul in 986 CE when the Ghaznavid Turks arrived (~1000CE). (Lal [a] p 434-5)
More successful jihad’s adhering to Islam’s text, examples and law.
Muhammad bin Qasim (Arab): Under Caliph al-Walid I (705-715, Damascus), Hajjaj bin Yusuf (governor of Iraq though he ruled the former Persia empire) sent 2 expeditions that failed then sent Qasim plus 6000 soldiers into the Sind, conquering large areas. Hajjaj was no doubt spurred on by the fact that treasure being sent to him was attacked by pirates off the coast of Sind and King Dahir refused to pay compensation and claimed an inability to stop the pirates.
Hajjaj was an Islamic imperialist who offered to repay the caliph’s expenses for Qasim’s mission which had 3 aims—1) spread the religion of Islam in Sind 2) conquest of Sind and extend Islam’s territory 3) Acquisition of maximum wealth for use by Hajjaj and payment to the caliph. (Lal [a] p 435-436)
A large number of jihadi soldiers from the Islamic world poured in for holy war against the idolaters (Khan p 303). In the hope of material gain some uneducated Jats and Meds joined in. They attacked ‘Sind’ largely populated by Buddhists adverse to fighting, preferring submission (Lal [a] p 437). Those that surrendered eg Nirun, still had their idols and religious sites destroyed and mosques built and were subjected to paying jizya and other taxes and tributes (Khan 86, Lal [a] p 438). They became ‘dhimmis’ though Islam demands death for pagans/idolaters/polytheists or conversion.
Hajjaj ordered Qasim to “behave in such a way that no enemy of the true faith is left in that country” (the Chachnama, an ancient history of Sind p 113 cited in Sookdheo p 261)
From their own historians we read that at Debal, a citadel-temple, was besieged, then after refusing to convert, adult males were slaughtered and others enslaved. The temple was destroyed and a mosque built. (Lal [a ] p 437). When the people asked for mercy, “Muhammad K (Q)asim replied that he had no order to spare anyone in the town and that the armed men had to do the slaughtering for 3 days..”(the Chachnama, p 83 cited in Sookdheo p 261).
Note, 3 days of massacre and pillage relates to the example of caliph Omar in his sack of Alexandria 641. Later, Ottoman Sultan Mehemet allowed 3 days of unrestricted pillage when they took Constantinople in 1453 –‘the blood ran in rivers down the steep streets’-–Khan p 86-87)
At the battle where king Dahir was killed, “when the idolaters fled and the Musulmans glutted themselves with massacre”(quoted in Lal [a] p 438)
At Rawar 6000 fighting men were put to the sword, 30,000? were enslaved –though the Chachnama by al-Kufi records 60,000 enslaved (Bostom p 81, Khan p 101, p 194). The queen and other women in the fort of Rawar gathered and set themselves alive (jauhar) to avoid enslavement and rape by muslims (Lal [a] p 438). The Chachnama gives the earliest record of Jauhar (Bostom p 81)
When the head of king Dahir along with the slaves (including several lovely young girls) and wealth reached Hajjaj he thanked allah and forwarded the head and a share of the booty to the Caliph.
Hajjaj sent a letter to Qasim “Allah says give no quarter to the infidels, but cut their throats. Then know that this is the command of the great allah” (Bostom p629) or “strike off their heads” as per Koran 47.4 “spare none” (Trifkovic p 110).
Qasim went on to Brahmanabad sending messengers to demand conversion or submission with payment of the jizya or battle (following the example of Mohammad). After a 6 month siege, he succeeded.
“(Qasim) sat on the seat of cruelty and put all those who had fought to the sword. It is said that about 6000 fighting men were slain, but according to some, 16,000 were killed . ( Muslim historians, Bostom p 629). The historian also noted that 1/5 of the prisoners set aside (for the caliph) numbered 20,000 (Bostom p 629, Sookdheo p 261) ie some 100,000 were enslaved -see also the Chachnama of al-Kufi (Khan p 101, 275) He marched on to Multan.
The temple at Brahmanabad was rebuilt – and temple worship could occur at Multan because they realised that ‘pilgrim tax’ and other taxes could be obtained. (Lal [a] 439). Large, significant temples were destroyed but smaller ones might be left, not as an act of kindness or respect, but purely for economic exploitation!
Further exploitation occurred with other taxes eg jizya and the Chachnama notes taxes eg baj and ushari levied on cultivators. (Lal [a] p 439). Qasim (Kasim) noted that it was impossible to slaughter all the Hindus who refused to convert and probably better to get taxes from them so Hajjaj gave them ‘dhimmi’ status. (Khan p 100). These were after all the ‘godless’ Umayyad’s, so where exploitation paid better, mass conversion might be avoided to enable exploitation of the dhimmi who were just communal slaves.
A Muslim historian noted that the Indian idols are called in general,‘budd,’ and they were destroyed (Bostom p 629). The same process was repeated endlessly with idols destroyed, fighters, temple priests and males slaughtered and others enslaved. Mosques were built using the materials and sites of former religious buildings.
While the numbers of dead and enslaved aren’t available for all the towns attacked by Qasim , he left Sind (India) taking some 300,000 slaves from 712-715 (Khan p 299). Arab power quickly declined and forced converts generally returned to their former faith. In Mansura (Muslim capital of Sind) they adopted Hinduism.
But Muslims in garrisons remained in certain areas eg Multan–and India’s wealth had been looted to a degree greatly exceeding the cost of the expedition (Lal [a] p 439, Khan p 160). Claims that Buddhist ‘traitors’ ‘invited’ Arab Muslim conquerors aren’t supported by evidence. Buddhists were no more likely to convert than Brahmans. The evidence shows Qasim as a conscientious, violent, intolerant Islamic jihadi. (Lal [a] p 440).
Many raids followed taking slaves, pillaging and slaughtering and enforcing Islam. (Khan p 275)
Eg Amru bin Muslim under Caliph Omar (717-720); under caliph Hasham bin Abdul Malik (r724-43) , Junaid bin Abdur Rahman enslaved, burnt and pillaged in several campaigns.
Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur (r 755-774) sent Hasham bin Amru to wage holy war in India eg Kashmir, taking slaves and plundering.
Under Caliph Al-Mahdi’s, Abul Malik’s naval jihad expedition burned and slaughtered.
Under Caliph al-Mamun, Afif bin Isa enslaved 27,000, slaughtered and plundered.
Caliph al-Mutasim’s governor of Sindh, Amran bin Musa, overtook Multan and Kandabil, enslaving the inhabitants.
Yakub Lais attacked Ar-Rukhaj (Aracosia) enslaving and forcing inhabitants into Islam.
War is deceit –Islam’s taqiyya in Afghanistan:
870: Saffaride (Arab Persian) ruler Yakub Lais (Yaqub ibn Layth) constantly attacked the Hindu kingdom
of Kabul. Lais sent a messenger to the Hindu king (Rasul) saying he wished to meet and render homage. The Hindu king welcomed the ambassadors and agreed to talk. The Hindu king sat on his throne with his men arrayed on either side. The 3,000 Muslims, hiding their swords and wearing coats of mail under their garments moved in. When Lais drew near the Hindu king he bowed but then stabbed the king in the back killing him.
“His people also fell like lightening upon the enemy, cutting them down with their swords , and staining the earth with the blood of the enemies of religion [Islam]. The infidels when they saw the head of Rasul upon the point of a spear, took flight, and great bloodshed ensued” (Muslim historians in Bostom p 630)
Thousands were enslaved. The ears of the slain were hung on the necks of Hindu officers. Great wealth was taken, temples plundered and jizya tax was levied on the people like the Jews and collected with severity. Muslims brag of the victory by treachery and deception which ended Hindu rule in Afghanistan (Bostom p 630, Khan p 100-101).
Islamic religious hatred from the beginning to today:
Turco-Afghan-Mongol slave soldiers from Central Asia worked along the eastern margins of Iran (Afghanistan) and their intermittent invasions consolidated Islamic rule in North India. They set up in Khurasan particularly Kabul and Ghazni (in today’s Afghanistan). (Sookdheo p 233)
The Gaznavids: Turks from Afghanistan:
1) The campaigns of Amir Subuktign of Ghazni (977-997, Turk) were to cleanse Jaypal’s kingdom from ‘IMPURITY’ and rejection of Islam. He entered the Punjab “in the prosecution of holy wars”..(Lal[a] p 440) and “killed the polluted wretches, destroying the idolatrous and gratifying the Musalmans” (from Muslim historians, Bostom p 631)
He destroyed idol-temples, set fire to areas inhabited by infidels and enforced Islam. He took great plunder and returned home where Muslims rejoiced at his success and thanked allah. (Muslim historians, Bostom p 631)
2) Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (son of Turkish slave ruler Subuktign, Afghanistan) carried out 17 deadly raids in Northern India (1000-1027) taking hundreds of thousands of slaves and immense plunder. He knew Islamic jurisprudence as text and laws were now available. He promised the Caliph of Baghdad to attack the idolaters of India –“jihad was central to Islam and that one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year” (Lal [a] p 441).
His court secretary/historian Utbi regarded the expeditions as jihad to propagate Islam and exterminate idolatry. Those who didn’t embrace Islam were put to the sword-convert or die! Utbi brags about the number ‘converted’ (Bostom p 82). Even when people fled, temples were destroyed and all was plundered eg Mathura. Immense wealth was taken (Lal [a] p 442-4)
In 1018-1019, the people of Thanesar (Punjab) were obstinate in their ‘infidelity’:
“so the sultan marched against him with his valiant warriors for the purpose of planting the standards of Islam and extirpating idolatry… “the blood of the infidels flowed so copiously that the stream was discoloured….and the people unable to drink from it’ ….. “The victory was gained by god’s grace, who has established Islam forever as the best of religions, notwithstanding that idolaters revolt against it” (Utbi in Bostom p 631, 83; Lal [a] p 445)
At Kanauj on the Ganges, with nearly 10,000 temples, the Sultan ordered the attack using some 20,000 men “anxious to be employed on some holy expedition in which they might obtain martyrdom”(Utbi in Lal [a] p 446)
“many infidels were consequently slain or taken prisoner in this sudden attack, and the Musulmans paid no regard to the booty till they had satiated themselves with the slaughter of the infidels and the worshippers of sun and fire. The friends of god searched the bodies of the slain for 3 whole days in order to obtain booty.” (Utbi in- Bostom p 632, 83; Lal [a] p 445)
Masses of slaves and wealth were taken to Ghazni. The slaves were sold on.
A near contemporary account notes the slaughter, mutilation, enslavement, plunder and destruction of idols, and forced conversion of Mahmud’s campaigns. He attacked Muttra, birthplace of Krishna son of Vasudeva with its great Hindu temple and ordered all idols destroyed (or taken as booty) and temples looted. People fled, many refused to convert though some out of fear did eg the Shah of Qirat. Hindus regarded Somnath as Muslims regard Mecca and the idol Manat (which Mohammad joined with allah in the ‘satanic verses’ and then changed his mind and removed it from the ka’aba) had reached Somnath. They attacked (1025CE) killing many Hindus (50,000) and smashing idols whose pieces were sent to Ghazni, Mecca and Medina and laid on the steps of the mosque for Muslims to step on! Mahmud exacted retribution on any who hindered him and attacked the refugee camps of those who fled (Bostom p 632-639, 83; Khan p 195, 200 )
Sultan Mahmud’s attack of Somnath (~1025) is recorded as:
“Band after band of defenders (Hindus) entered the temple of Somnath, with their hands clasped around their necks, wept and passionately entreated him (not to attack). Then again, they issued forth to fight until they were slain but a few were left alive….the number of slain exceeded 50,000”(Khan 88)
These were ordinary people defending their sacred place—they reconstructed it 3 times but the Muslim invaders repeatedly destroyed it! (Khan p 89). The attack on Somnath was considered specially pious and fired the Islamic world’s imagination eg Sufi poets. (Lal [a] p 443)
Alberuni (973-1050), a Persian scholar captured by Mahmud when attacking central Asia, was brought to India and travelled for 20 years studying Indian mathematics, philosophy, geography and religion. He recorded the Muslim conquests of India, noting:
“Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country and performed there wonderful exploits, by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all direction, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people. … This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hands cannot yet reach…. Their scattered remains cherish of course, the most inveterate aversion towards all Muslims”(recorded in his book 1030-cited in khan p 89, p 191, Bostom p 83, Trifkovic p 110)
AND Mathura, the holy city of Krishna was the next victim. “In the middle of the city there was a temple larger and finer than the rest, which can neither be described nor painted” The sultan [Mahmud] was of the opinion that 200 years would have been required to build it. The idols included “five of red gold, each five yards high” with eyes formed of priceless jewels.”The Sultan gave orders that all the temples should be burnt with naphtha and fire and levelled with the ground” (Trifkovic p 110)
Alberuni also wrote that the Hindus
‘frighten their children with us (Muslims), our dress and our ways and customs and decry us as ‘devil’s breed’ and that they regard ‘everything we do as opposite of all that is good and proper.”(Khan p 93) (I couldn’t agree more!)
Alberuni noted that the Hindu kings of the Punjab desired doing right and had noble sentiments and bearing. Mahmud’s and Ghaznavid rule in general plundered and was militaristic and imperialistic, destroying the peace and prosperity. ( Lal [a] p 445)
Mahmud Ghazi was barbaric, cruel and terrorised the North. He knew Islamic jurisprudence. Apostates were viciously dealt with ie forced converts who returned to their previous religion (Khan 101, 109). Muslims love him, Hindus hate him (Khan p 195)
Based on the records of Muslim historians, Professor KS Lal estimates Sultan Mahmud’s invasions of Northern India reduced the Hindu population by about 2 MILLION. (Khan p 103). 14 Ghaznavids ruled at Lahore and surrounds (Punjab) for ~200 years with successors continuing the ‘holy war.’
The Muslim Seljuk Turks threatened the Ghaznavids, but the Seljuks headed to Damascus and the Mediterranean. Instead, a ‘subjugated’ tribe arose and ousted the Ghaznavids. In 1151, Aluddin Husain (‘world burner’) burnt down the new Ghazni city built by Mahmud (costing 7 million gold coins)(Lal [a] p 447). Two of his relatives ruled different areas and one, Muhammad Ghauri (Turk from Ghazni) gained control of the Punjab and set out to conquer India, confronting the Rajputs, defending their motherland against the repeated invasions. He suffered many defeats (Lal [a] p 448-9). In 1191, the Hindu king Prithviraj Chauhan of Delhi and Ajmer defeated and captured Ghauri on his first attack and, despite Ghauri’s attacks, murders, enslavement and plunder on India’s northern borders,released him. Ghauri returned, defeated the prince and pulled his eyes out before killing him (Khan p 208) (Could there be a lesson in this!!!)
The Muslim hatred of Hindus and of ‘black people’ continued under the Ghaurivid Turks-
Muhammad Gauri had well elaborated theological justifications for jihad, the Hedaya (sharia law) and Alberuni’s books on India’s geography, socio-political culture, philosophy, sciences (astronomy, physics, medicine) etc plus a powerful army of Turks, Persians and Afghans to support his jihad. (Bostom p 84, Lal [a] p 448-9) In the conquest of Ajmer by Muhammad Gauri (1192CE), Hindus are referred to as ‘crow faced’ and appearing like ‘a river of pitch flowing impetuously down the face of a mountain of blue’….”the army of Islam was completely victorious , and a hundred thousand grovelling Hindus swiftly departed to the fire of hell.” (Muslim historian-Hassan Nizami in Bostom p 640-641)
Again temples were destroyed and mosques and Islam forced on people –particularly on the hundreds of thousands he enslaved as he marched into ‘Hindustan.’ Blood flowed on the battlefield as they headed to Delhi (Khan p 196, 277).
Mohammad Gauri’s general who became a sultan, Qutb al-Din Aybak (Qutbuddin Aikbak) destroyed idol temples and built mosques eg Mirat, Delhi, Benares (nearly 1000 temples destroyed) according to historian Hasan Nizami (Sookdheo p 262, Khan p 196). From mosques issued the call to prayer—as a THREAT, join us or else (Lal [c] p 536)
(K)Qutbuddin Aibak attacked Aligarh in 1193, beheading so many Hindus that:
“3 bastions were raised as high as heaven with their heads, and their carcasses became food for beasts of prey. The tract was freed from idols and idol worship and the foundations of infidelity were destroyed” (Nizami cited in Khan p 196)
He also attacked Gujarat (1197) “from the heaps of the slain, the hills and plains became of one level” (cited in Khan p 196) In Kalinjar in 1202 “fifty thousand men came under the collar of slavery and the plain became as black as pitch with Hindus” (Nizami cited in Khan p 196, 277)
The people were terrified by the cruelty of the ‘Turushkas.’(Lal [a] p 450). The Khokhar (Gukkars) peasants took up arms against Sultan Ghauri who “defeated the rebels, and made their blood flow in streams”(Ibn Asir cited in Khan p114).
But, the Khokhars assassinated Ghauri in a war camp in 1206 (Khan p 114). Supposedly hundreds of thousands had been converted but this seems wrong as they continue to be referred to as non-Muslim and attacked in following years (Lal[c] p 536)
The first Islamic sultanate of India under the Ghaurivids—but the slaughter, forced conversions , enslavement and turmoil continue:
1 ) Qutb al-Din Aybak or Qutbuddin Aikbar (Turk) became the first Sultan of India (r 1206-1210) after taking Delhi. He attacked and enslaved from Delhi to Gujarat, from Lakhnauti to Lahore (Lal[c] p 536) Slaves were now generally kept in India and forced into every possible form of service to sultans, generals, nobles and soldiers…or ordinary Muslims. Excess slaves were sold, for the first time, in markets in India. Temples were destroyed and mosques were built and Sharia and Islam enforced . The laws of dhimmitude were applied and Islam was the religion of the state; Hindus (Buddhists) couldn’t build or repair temples, celebrate religious rites openly or promote their religion; their employment, civic rights and freedom were restricted and jizya and many other crushing taxes had to be paid. (kind?) Firoz Tughlaq and Sikandar Lodi prohibited Hindus from bathing in sacred rivers. There was intolerance and persecution while efforts were made to force people into Islam eg bribes, employment.(Bostom p 84- 85)
At the same time, Bakhtiyar Khilji massacred and enslaved in Bengal and Bihar (Eastern India-Buddhist).(Khan p 278)
2) Sultan Iltutmish (r1210-1236), had to suppress the Turks but still attacked a variety of areas (Ranthambhor, Ujjain) enslaving and plundering in the true spirit of jihad.
3) Under Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud (1236-1265), Ulugh Khan Balban attacked a large number of towns. In Katechar all males above 8 years of age were massacred while women and small children were enslaved (Lal [c] p 539; Khan p 279).
Balkan became sultan in 1265 (Ghiyasuddin Balban )(slaughtering for Islam seems to pay!). He continued to exterminate Hindus, destroy villages and enslave. Their extensive campaigns were jihad (Lal [b] p 456)
After no addition of territory despite constant efforts from 1210-1296,Turkish invaders penetrated into the south (14th century) bringing Islam’s death, destruction, enslavement and plunder (Lal [b] p 458).
4) Under the Kilji rulers (Jalaluddin then Alauddin, 1290-1316) Hindus continued to be massacred. Such massacres were praised by Sufis such as Amir Khusrau in his Khazain-ul-Futuh (finished 1311) eg referring to Aluddin Kilji “That he (the sultan) so ordered the massacre of all the chiefs of Hindustan out of the pale of Islam, by his infidel smiting sword….”(Lal [b] p 457).
Sufi Ziyauddin Barani noted that Hindus were the greatest among the enemies of god and the religion of the prophet and needed to be eliminated. He advocates an all-out jihad (Lal [b] p 457)
Muslim chroniclers note that Sultan Alauddin (1296-1316) “had cut off the heads of his enemies and slain them, the vein of the zeal of religion beat high for the subjugation of infidelity and destruction of idols (Bostom p 641)
He sent his armies to the celebrated Hindu city of Kambayat “with a view of holy war.” Here the unsuspecting idolaters were awakened from their sleep and the Muhammadan forces began to “kill and slaughter on the right and on the left unmercifully, throughout the impure land for the sake of Islam.” Blood flowed in torrents while immense wealth was taken along with 20,000 maidens and children “more than the pen can enumerate.” The country was ruined and temples and idols smashed or taken. Temple fragments eg from Somnat went to the entrance of Delhi’s Jami Masjid for Muslims to walk on.
“All these impurities of infidelity have been cleansed by the Sultan’s destruction of idol temples……….so that the flames of the light of the law illuminate all these unholy countries….allah be praised.”(Muslim –sufi- historians in Bostom p 641-2)
Prolonged warfare, enslavement, plunder and massacres making the ground “muddy with blood”(eg Malwa 1305) were carried out across wide areas including the south under jihadi Alauddin (Lal [b] p 457-8)
Malik Kafur, Hindu convert to Islam led the Muslim army against Billal Deo and its ‘fire-worshipping’ Rai, offering in true Islamic fashion, conversion, dhimmitude with taxes or death. The Rai refused to give up his sacred thread (Muslim chroniclers, Bostom p 642)
Whether they reigned from Delhi or were independent Muslim rulers, the same attitudes and practices prevailed…and these ‘sultans’ were rewarded by caliphs in Bagdhad and then Cairo for their propagation of Islam and the wealth and slaves sent to the caliph (Khan p 161, 111)
5) The 3 Tughlaq’s (Ghiyas, Muhammad, Firoz to-1388..) kept up the good work.
Sultan Muhammad Shah Tughlaq (r 1325-51) attacked Bengal (also attacked by Ghiyas) , Sindh, and the Deccan. Rebellions were violently suppressed causing depopulation.
He showed the “greatest zeal in making war upon the infidels” (Shihabuddin Ahmad Abbas cited in Khan p 280) He reached into south India and Bengal. He accumulated then married off slaves during Islamic festivals (Khan p 280).
Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq (r 1351-1388) supposedly the ‘kindest’ of the Delhi sultans was a zealous Muslim bigot who imposed jizya even on Brahmans, enslaved, destroyed temples, murdered priests and stamped out idol worship including slaughtering all involved in a Hindu religious festival in a village, declaring no dhimmi could carryout such practices! (Khan p 197, Trifkovic p 112, ). He used exemption from jizya tax to ‘encourage’ conversions (quote in Khan p 108) Of course, confronting people with a sword, taking their children, goods and burning their homes and crops then subjecting them to humiliation, and economic ruin via taxes and laws isn’t ‘forced’ conversion according to Islam!
Under Firoz, Furhut-ul-Mulk was appointed governor of Gujarat but his tolerance of Hinduism earned complaints by Sufis and the Ulema. A new viceroy, Moonzuffur Khan, was selected who forced conversions, destroyed temples and replaced them with mosques, and terrorised the Hindus. Sufis were left to ‘propagate’ Islam (Khan p 130-1)
Areas not completely subdued eg Rantambhor, Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Gwalior, Katehar, Avadh, Rajputana, Sindh and Punjab, were endlessly attacked and sacked. (Lal [b] p 458)
Resistance to Islam continued throughout:
Enslaved and castrated convert Khusrau Khan joined with 20,000 Bewari Hindus resulting in the death of his patron Sultan Kutbuddin Mubarak Khilji and Muslim officers. They aimed to remove Islam from Delhi and set up idols in the mosque pulpits and used Korans as seats (Khan p 113)
Ibn Battutah –travelled in the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shah Tughlaq (reigned 1325-51) noted many Hindu rebels and warriors who fled to inaccessible mountains etc near Multan and Aligrath and continued to fight, refusing to convert (Khan p 94, 95). He records the SADISM of the Sultan of Ma’Bar (Ghayasuddin) (~1345CE) towards these rebels whom he impaled on poles, then slaughtered their women and children (see part I for his description)
The Vijaynagar Kingdom’s tolerance and Islamic treachery: Fort Hood in the 16th century.
In 1326, Sultan Muhammad Shah Tughlaq enslaved and converted 2 brothers –Harihara and Bukka from the Deccan—and 10 years later sent them back with the Islamic army. They threw off Islam and founded the powerful Vijaynager Kingdom –a Hindu kingdom and flourishing centre of Indian civilisation and a great impediment against the Islamization of south India for 200 years.! (Khan p 96). Duarte Barbosa noted that here people could come and go and live according to their creed (Christian, Jew, Moor/Muslim, heathen) without suffering annoyance as great equity and justice was observed by all (Khan p 215).
The Vijaynagar Kingdom (1336-1565) was at times completely independent and at other times forced to pay tribute.
In 1366, Deccan (area of India) Sultan Muhammad Shah Bahmani attacked King Krishna Ray of the Vijaynagar kingdom—vowing to kill 100,000 and murdering pregnant women and breast feeding babies. He killed 10,000 of the king’s fighters and sent them into flight and ordered massacres of the inhabitants around Vijaynager. The Hindu King sent ambassadors to make peace with pleas that surely no religion required the innocent (women, children) to suffer for the faults of the guilty (kings) but the Muslim sultan refused, claiming decrees of Providence had ordered what had been done and this couldn’t be changed (text from allah eg slaughter the idolaters Koran 9.5). Possibly 200,000 to 500,000 Hindus were killed (Lal [b] p 458). Peace came after a large tribute was paid! (Khan p 208-9)
The Kings eg Raya II showed great respect towards Islam and the Muslims had their mosque. In 1522 it’s city was “large as Rome and very beautiful to the sight”(Portuguese traveller in Khan p 212). It was wealthy and well provisioned. In 1564, following attacks on them in the same way that they had attacked for 200 years, 4 neighbouring Muslim sultanates joined to destroy it, burning it to the ground in 1565CE. Over 100,000 were slain and the plunderers became very rich. “The river was dyed red with their blood” (Bostom p 653).
The Muslims marched on attacking over 5 months.
“The enemy had come to destroy, and they carried out their object relentlessly. They slaughtered the people without mercy; broke the temples and palaces and wreaked such savage vengeance….that with the exception of a few great stone- built temples and walls, nothing now remains but a heap of ruins to mark the spot where once stately buildings stood. They demolished the statues…….they lit huge fires in the magnificently decorated buildings forming the temple of Vitthalaswami near the river and smashed its exquisite stone sculptures. With fire and sword, with crowbars and axes, they carried on day after day their work of destruction. Never perhaps in the history of the world has such havoc been wrought, and wrought so suddenly on so splendid a city; teeming with a wealthy and industrious population in the FUN plentitude of prosperity one day, and on the next seized, pillaged, and reduced to ruins, amid scenes of savage massacre and horrors beggaring description….The loot must have been enormous. Couto states that amongst the treasures was found a diamond as large as a hen’s egg, which was kept by Adil Shah” (cited in Bostom p 654)
The fate of the battle “was determined by the desertion of 2 Muhammadan commanders under Ramaraja . Caesar Frederick, who visited Vijayanagara in 1567, said that each of these commanders had under him 70,000-80,000 men and the defeat of Vijayanagara was due to their desertion. Ramaraja fell into enemy hands and was beheaded on the order of Hussain” (Fort Hood massacre on a bigger scale –but we learn nothing!)(Bostom p 653)
Foolishly the tolerant Hindu kings had allowed Muslims into their army –and even tolerated their sacrilegious, offensive behaviour of killing cows. When the surrounding Muslims attacked—the 2 battalions, of 70,000-80,0000, led by Muslims, joined them! The Hindu king was beheaded! (Khan p 212-3) (Could there be a lesson here as well???)
Pious Timurlane –Amir Timur (1370-1405, Turk/Mongol).(Khan p 281-2)
Supposedly descended from Ghenhis Khan , in Timur, Mongol tribal brutality joined Islamic religious fanaticism.
Tamerlane crushed Nestorian and Jacobite Christianity in Central Asia (he buried alive 4,000 Armenians/Assyrians 1400-1), he fought and beat the Ottomans when their paths crossed but left much of Asia Minor and Europe to them, he also attacked Syria and Northern India (1397-99CE)(Bostom p 76). He was a pious Muslim who decimated the existing Muslim group in power in Delhi.
In his own memoirs (cited below from Bostom p 645-651) he expresses his desire to be a ghazi (fighter for allah) or a martyr. He considered attacking the infidels of China and India –he chose India first and died before reaching China! He sought an omen from the Koran and found –
“O prophet, make war upon infidels and unbelievers, and treat them with severity” (Koran 66.9) (As readers of the Koran, hadith and sira know there’s lots more ‘inspiration’ to kill the infidel!)
He reports the Prince Muhammad Sultan describing the wealth and fertility of India –and its polytheists, infidels, idolaters and sun worshippers and “by the order of allah and his prophet, it is right for us to conquer them”
“My object in the invasion of Hindustan is to lead an expedition against the infidels that, according to the law of Mohammad …we may convert to the true faith the people of that country, and purify the land itself from the filth of infidelity and polytheism; and that we may overthrow their temples and idols and become ghazis and mujtahids before god.” (Timur memoirs Bostom p 645, Sookdheo p 228)
He records that the wise men of Islam regarded it as a duty to suppress others. Timur chased and slaughtered those who fled. The few who remained were offered death or Islam (eg at Kator). The Rujputs fought but at Bhatnir;
“all the people in the fort were put to the sword and in the course of one hour the heads of 10,000 infidels were cut off. The sword of Islam was washed in the blood of the infidels, and all the goods and effects, the treasure and grain which for many a long year had been stored in the fort, became the spoil of my soldiers. They set fire to the houses and reduced them to ashes, and they raised the buildings and the fort to the ground.”
He describes the princes and Amirs congratulating him and heads to Sarsuti whose people dared to raise and eat pigs. They fled before he arrived but he chased them. “All these infidel Hindus were slain, their wives and children were made prisoners and their property and goods became the spoil of the victors.” The captives became Muslim! He describes his slaughter and enslavement of jats who fled to the jungles. In Loni, the Rajputs fought . Timur demanded that the prisoners,“the infidels should all be despatched to hell with the proselyting sword.”
By the time he reached Delhi, he had 100,000 infidels and Hindus enslaved with him who couldn’t be left while he attacked Delhi, so ALL were slaughtered! Anyone who refused to slaughter their prisoners would “be executed and his property given to the informer!!!”
He sacked Delhi. “15,000 Turks were engaged in slaying, plundering and destroying….the spoil was so great” He claimed his warriors on one day took 50-100 prisoners EACH with no man having less than 20!! The Muslim areas weren’t sacked! He stayed 15 days which passed in pleasure as he held court and feasted.
‘I had stained my proselyting sword with the blood of the enemies of the faith”
He notes he was here to fight the infidels and sends his commanders to go to towns and villages and put all to the sword (women and children were enslaved, property plundered) including those bathing in the Ganges as Timur headed home to Samarkand, Central Asia.. “so many of them were killed that their blood ran down the mountains and plain, and thus (nearly) all were sent to hell.”
‘I had crossed the rivers Ganges and Jumna and I had sent many of the abominable infidels to hell, and had purified the land from their foul existence….Thanks to almighty allah
Heaps of the slain were made at the Siwalik (several towns eg Kagarkot) and all women and children enslaved plus immense ‘spoil’ taken.
‘My principal object in coming to Hindustan…..has been to accomplish 2 things. The first was to war with the infidels, the enemies of the Muhammadan religion; and by this religious warfare to acquire some claim to reward in the life to come. The other was a worldly object; that the army of Islam might gain something by plundering the wealth and valuables of the infidels: plunder in war is lawful as their mother’s milk to Musulmans who war for their faith, and the consuming of that which is lawful is a means of grace”. (above from Timur’s memoirs Bostom p 645-651)
Timur/Tamerlane was a great, pious Muslim who did exactly as allah and Mohammad required.
The Timurid empire lasted to 1506. The following Sayyid Sultans Timur put in place, recognised Timur and his successors as Caliph and sent tribute to the Timurid capital of Samarkhand. They continued his pious work.
Others continually fought back.
In 1414, a Hindu prince, Ganesha, revolted against Islamic rule and took power in Bengal. The Sufis and Muslims got outside help to depose him and put his 12 year old son on the throne—the child was converted to Islam and became a bloody enforcer of Islam (We see this in the janissaries, slave armies etc where Islam turns the minds of children to violence, perversion and hatred of others…we see it today eg Palestine and the streets of Melbourne –see Genocide Tot this site). The son, Jalaluddin Muhammad (Jalal-ud-Din of Bengal, 1414-1431) forcibly converted Hindus and persecuted those who refused to convert –it was the Koran or death, possibly ‘converting’ more than in the next 300 years! .(Sook p 243, Khan p127)
Jasrath Shaika Khokhar (Khokhars assassinated sultan Gauri in 1206) was an infidel enemy of the Muslim rulers (1420-30s)(Khan p 114)
Independent ‘Bahmani’ Sultans of Gulbarga and Bidar, continued the jihad. It was meritorious to kill 100,000 Hindu men, women and children EACH year. (Lal [b] p456; Khan p 197)
Alauddin Shah Bahmani, a Muslim ruler of the Deccan (1435-1457) promised to kill a hundred thousand Hindus in revenge for the death of a single Mussulman…as was the rule for the princes in his family (Sookdheo p 264)
The Sayyid (1400-1525) and Lodi rulers(1451-1526)
The Sultanate of Delhi was re-established. The sayyid’s plundered Katehar, Malwa, Alwar Lahore…slaughtering and enslaving Hindus.
Sultan Bahlul depopulated Nimsar (Hardoi district). Sikandar Lodi depopulated Rewa and Gwalior regions (Khan p 282)
Sikandar prohibited Hindus from bathing in sacred rivers, applied sharia laws for dhimmis and tried to compel people to convert (Bostom p 85).
As we can see, Jihad was the reason for attacking India from the beginning and it’s not finished yet. Following this, the Mughals took power but despite bringing new weapons, they continued the old, unchangeable Islamic jihad. Part K examines the jihad from the Mughals to the present day in the words of the jihadis themselves. As noted in part I, Indians were slaughtered, enslaved, forced to convert or existed as demeaned dhimmis or fled to the jungles. Every attack stripped India of its freedom, wealth, people, culture and history.
1) Bostom, A. G. ‘The Legacy of Jihad: Islamic holy war and the fate of the non-Muslims.’ Prometheus Books. New York. 2005.
2) Khan, M. A. ‘Islamic Jihad: A legacy of forced conversion, imperialism and slavery.’ iUniverse, Bloomington, IN. 2009. (An Indian ex-Muslim)
3) Lal [a], K.S. Muslims invade India p 433-455 in Bostom (1) above.
4) Lal [b], K.S. Jihad under the Turks and jihad under the Mughals p 456-461 in Bostom (1) above.
5) Lal [c], K.S. Slave-taking during Muslim rule p535-548 in Bostom (1) above.
6) Lal [d], K.S. Enslavement of Hindus by Arab and Turkish invaders p 549-554 in bostom (1) above.
7) Lal [e], K.S. The Origins of Muslim slave system p 529-534 in bostom (1) above.
8) Reliance of the Traveller: A classic manual of Islamic sacred law. In Arabic with facing English Text, commentary and appendices edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller Al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib; Amana publications Maryland USA 1994.
9) Sookhdeo, P. ‘Global Jihad: The future in the face of Militant Islam.’ Isaac Publishing. 2007.
10) Trifkovic, S. ‘The sword of the prophet.’ Regina Orthodox Press, Inc. 2002.
Last Updated on Friday, 12 March 2010 10:24